The human genome has been completely decoded for nearly 20 years but in truth, we still only understand a fraction of it.
If we knew what exactly is in our genes and understood exactly how genetic information is passed on genetically and epigenetically, the possibilities for the medical field would be vast.
It would be a breakthrough not only for the personalization of medical treatment based on patient specific risks but, it would also open the door to possible applications such as genetically optimized sports courses, nutrition plans or furnishing concepts.
When the Human Genome Project (HGP) was completed in 2003, it provided the ability to read the entire genetic blueprint for building a human being.
21,000 is the approximate number of genes that make up the human genome but, the figure caused quite a stir.
Since before the Human Genome Project, it was thought that humans had as many as 100,000 protein-coding genes. For comparison, the Water Flea has around 31,000 genes while Wheat has more than 107,000.
3 million base pairs, accounts for all of the differences between two people regardless of where they come from.
The human genome comprises around 3.2 billion base pairs. So, the 3 million figures corresponds to less than 0.1% of total human genetic information.
All other gene sequences are absolutely identical.
4 substances determine how a person develops. The DNA bases cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) and thymine (T) are the only letters in the most powerful language on Earth.
Their sequence determines not only how life is shaped but whether life arises at all.